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Secrétariat aux affaires autochtones

Profile of the Nations

The 10 Autochtones nations and the Inuit nation represent about 1% of Québec’s population. They are spread out over 55 aboriginal communities. The Inuit reside in 14 northern villages; each village is headed by a mayor and a council that assume responsibilities similar to those of the elected officials of other Québec municipalities. For their part, the Autochtones generally live on reserves or in settlements administered by a band council, which is made up of a chief and advisors. According to Statistics Canada 2006 Census, approximately 48 % of Quebec Aboriginal people would be less than 30 years old.

The 11 aboriginal nations differ from one another. Indeed, within the same nation, even the same community, the way of life, the use of a given language and the socioeconomic situation of the members may vary greatly. The level of economic development of a nation or a community also changes according to three main factors: the proximity of markets, access to the road network, and the level of schooling.

The Autochtones of Québec belong to two language and cultural families: Algonquian and Iroquois. The Abenakis, Algonquians, Attikameks, Crees, Malecites, Micmacs, Innu and Naskapis are of Algonquian culture, while the Huron-Wendats and the Mohawks are of Iroquois culture. The Inuit, who originate from a different wave of settlement, form a distinct ethnic group.

Here is a series of descriptive sheets that will help you discover the 11 aboriginal nations of Québec.

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Secrétariat aux affaires autochtones
905, avenue Honoré-Mercier, 1er étage - Québec (Qc)  G1R 5M6 - 418 643-3166
Last update :December 2, 2019
Online as of : November 11, 2004